Political thought Res Publica Toleration War

Toleration and the Future of Europe by Timothy Snyder

New York Review of Books has an article by Timothy Snyder about the Siege of Vienna, 1683, in which the author explains why a black and white view of the event represented by some Islamophobes (Breivik included) is wrong: Historisches Museum, ViennaFranz Geffels, The Battle of Vienna, 1683 Toleration and the Future of Europe Timothy […]



Lulajże Jezuniu, a 17th Century Carol and Chopin’s Scherzo Nr 1 Op. 20

2010 is the Year of Chopin, and I promised myself to write about him before it ends. Chopin is known for making the Polish traditional and folk music his trademark, for which he’s considered the most Polish out of Polish composers. Parents His father, Nicolas Chopin, was born in the Duchy of Lorraine to a […]

Political thought Res Publica

Considerations on the Government of Poland by Jean-Jacques Rousseau

On the eve of the 18th century Augustus II (the Strong) occupied the throne of the Commonwealth. He wasn’t legally elected by the nobility, and his various machinations dragged Poland-Lithuania into wars with Sweden and Russia. With Sweden’s intervention Augustus II lost his throne to Stanisław Leszczyński. With the support of Russia the situation changed […]

Res Publica

The Most Serene Republic – Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania

The official name of the country was Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It was referred to in Latin as Regnum Poloniae Magnusque Ducatus Lithuaniae. Since the 17th century, in international relations, it was usually known as the Most Serene Republic of Poland, Serenissima Res Publica Poloniae. Locally it was called Rzeczpospolita – […]